TI: Bioavailability of Spirulina Carotenes in Preschool Children (Dec, 1990)

AU: Vure Annapurna, Nisha Shah, Padbidri Bhaskaram, Mahtab Bamji S and Vinodini Reddy

AD: National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Jamai Osmania P.O. Hyderabad

AB: Experiments were carried out to assess Spirulina fusiformis, a blue-green alga, as a source of vitamin A in preschool children. The absorption of total carotenes and β- carotene from a single dose of Spirulina containing 1200µg of β-carotene was examined in apparently healthy children aged 3-5 years. After stabilization on an almost carotene-free diet taken for 7 days, a bolus dose of Spirulina was fed along

with the meal. Fecal excretion of total carotene and β-carotene for 4 days prior to the supplementation and 4 days after supplementation were examined. The effect of daily supplementation of either Spirulina or of vitamin A for one month on serum retinol levels was also examined. The mean absorption of total carotene was found to be 72.3% and that of β-carotene, 75.2%. Serum retinol showed a significant improvement in both the Spirulina and vitamin A-supplemented groups, the increase being slightly better in the vitamin A-supplemented group. On withdrawal of the supplements, serum retinol levels returned to pre-supplementation levels by 1- 3 months in both groups. The bioavailability of carotenes from Spirulina is thus comparable to that from other sources such as carrots and green leafy vegetables, thus suggesting the potential use of this alga as a dietary source of pro-vitamin A.

Experiments were carried out to assess Spirulina fusiformis, a blue-green alga, as a source of vitamin A in preschool children. The absorption of total carotenes and β- carotene from a single dose of Spirulina containing 1200µg of β-carotene was examined in apparently healthy children aged 3-5 years. After stabilization on an almost carotene-free diet taken for 7 days, a bolus dose of Spirulina was fed along

with the meal. Fecal excretion of total carotene and β-carotene for 4 days prior to the supplementation and 4 days after supplementation were examined. The effect of daily supplementation of either Spirulina or of vitamin A for one month on serum retinol levels was also examined. The mean absorption of total carotene was found to be 72.3% and that of β-carotene, 75.2%. Serum retinol showed a significant improvement in both the Spirulina and vitamin A-supplemented groups, the increase being slightly better in the vitamin A-supplemented group. On withdrawal of the supplements, serum retinol levels returned to pre-supplementation levels by 1- 3 months in both groups. The bioavailability of carotenes from Spirulina is thus comparable to that from other sources such as carrots and green leafy vegetables, thus suggesting the potential use of this alga as a dietary source of pro-vitamin A.

Experiments were carried out to assess Spirulina fusiformis, a blue-green alga, as a source of vitamin A in preschool children. The absorption of total carotenes and β- carotene from a single dose of Spirulina containing 1200µg of β-carotene was examined in apparently healthy children aged 3-5 years. After stabilization on an almost carotene-free diet taken for 7 days, a bolus dose of Spirulina was fed along

with the meal. Fecal excretion of total carotene and β-carotene for 4 days prior to the supplementation and 4 days after supplementation were examined. The effect of daily supplementation of either Spirulina or of vitamin A for one month on serum retinol levels was also examined. The mean absorption of total carotene was found to be 72.3% and that of β-carotene, 75.2%. Serum retinol showed a significant improvement in both the Spirulina and vitamin A-supplemented groups, the increase being slightly better in the vitamin A-supplemented group. On withdrawal of the supplements, serum retinol levels returned to pre-supplementation levels by 1- 3 months in both groups. The bioavailability of carotenes from Spirulina is thus comparable to that from other sources such as carrots and green leafy vegetables, thus suggesting the potential use of this alga as a dietary source of pro-vitamin A.

SO: J.Clin. Biochem, Nutr., 10, 145- 151, 1991

A study of haemoglobin levels in humans fed on Spirulina supplement

AU: Seshadri C.V & Valliammai Subramanian

AD: Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, Tharamani, Madras

AB: The study was undertaken by the Research Centre on the effect of Spirulina administration on haemoglobin levels. Spirulina was administered to volunteers of Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre and New Ambadi Estates Pvt. Ltd., Chennai. The volunteers’ average age was 35 years. The dosage given was 2gms of Spirulina /day. The volunteers were asked to mix the powder in a glass of buttermilk and consume it. During the study period, the volunteers were advised not to take coffee or tea before and after one hour of the Spirulina administration. The haemoglobin count. (gms/dl) and body weight were taken on the 0th and 36th day. There was an increase of average haemoglobin 1.33 gms/dl and body weight 1.25 Kg respectively.

SO: Monograph Series on the Engineering of Photosynthetic Systems. Vol. 30.

Effect of supplementation of Spirulina fusiformis on the levels of blood glucose and lipid profile of non-insulin dependent diabetics (August 1991)

AU: Vinitha Raghunath

AD: Dept. of Home Science, Women’s Christian College, Madras

AB: The study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing two grams of Spirulina daily to the diets of 16 newly detected, non-insulin dependent diabetics for a period of 40 days. The effect of supplementation was assessed by testing the level of plasma glucose at fasting and after a glucose load, serum total and HDL – cholesterol and serum triglycerides on the initial day and after 20 and 40 days of Spirulina supplementation. The data obtained from the interview schedule revealed that majority of the diabetics were in the age range of 45 and 50 years with polyuria being the most common symptom. All the diabetics consumed foods that were most conducive to their health. Supplementation of Spirulina for a period of 40 days was found to lower plasma glucose levels and serum total cholesterol level in the diabetics, however there was no change in the serum HDL – cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels after supplementation.Supplementation of Spirulina in the form of capsules to diabetics was found to be acceptable by all the subjects and was found to be beneficial for diabetic patients.

Beta-carotene Therapy for Tropical Pancreatitis (October 1991)

AU: Shenoy K.T, Jayanthibai, Sarah V., Leena K.B.

AD:Department of Gastroenterology & Biochemistry, Medical College,Thiruvananthapuram .

AB: The study was conducted to access the effect of beta-carotene in the relief of pain with tropical pancreatitis with the hypothesis that there is oxidant stress in the pathogenesis of tropical pancreatitis and of pancreatic pain. 28 patients with tropical pancreatitis, TP with large pseudo cyst, associated malignancy and end stage disease, were studied in an 8 weeks double blind cross over trial with betacarotene 4800 IU/day or placebo. The results of evaluation indicated that there was reduction in Lipid peroxides following active therapy. Analysis of visual analogue scale scores when compared to background pain showed beneficial effect. The study concluded that betacarotene offers a new approach for pain management in Tropical pancreatitis.

SO: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol.10 No.4 ; C.V. Seshadri and N. Jeeji Bai
(Eds.), Spirulina ETTA Nat. Symp. MCRC, Madras. 1992

Porphyria Cutanea Tarda Responding to Spirulina (October 1992)

AU: Pavithran K., Ramachandran Nair P.

AD:Dept. of Dermato-Venerology, Medical College Hospital, Kottayam

AB: A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral Spirulina – an alga rich in beta-carotene. The beta-carotene in the Spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen, which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria – associated photosensitivity. Treatment: The dosage of 3gms of Spirulina daily for 3 weeks resulted in complete remission of the skin lesions and associated photosensitivity. He was then maintained on Spirulina 1gm daily for 3 months.There was no recurrence of the lesions.

SO: Ind J of Dermatol, Venereol and Leprol 1992, 58

Efficacy of Spirulina fusiformis in a case of rheumatoid arthritis (1992)

AU: Malathi Mohan

AD:Dept. of Home Science, Women’s Christian College, Chennai

AB: Subject: Mrs. S.J; Age 44 years; Height 162.5 cm; Weight 51.5 Kg
Occupation: Secretarial assistant in a college
Health problem as diagnosed: Rheumatoid arthritis with swelling in the joints since 1988;
Treatment: Over 3 years; initial: Allopathy; Second: Siddha medicine; Third: Allopathy; Fourth: All external balms available in the market, including ayurvedic oils along with pain killers; Fifth: Aspirin treatment-over 500 tablets; Last: Spirulina fusiformis from Dec. 1990 to date. Mrs. S.J. Came upon Spirulina when an elderly aunt, who was taking it, advised her to try it. As the Department of Home Science was then collaborating with the Murugapa Chettiar Research Centre and New Ambadi Estates Pvt. Ltd (Algal Division) over a project, Mrs. S.J. was given 2g packets of Spirulina powder to be
taken once a day after breakfast. Within two days she noticed the pain had decreased and within 10 days, the swelling on her knee reduced. Since then Mrs. SJ has been taking Spirulina and is very happy with the results. Changes: She has very little pain now, the swelling has disappeared. She is able to bend her knees and sit on the floor. Only squatting is a little troublesome. She is very thankful to Spirulina fusiformis

SO:C.V. Seshadri and N. Jeeji Bai (Eds.), Spirulina ETTA Nat. Symp. MCRC, Madras.
1992

Large-scale nutritional supplementation with Spirulina Alga (1991-1993)

AU: C.V.Seshadri, Jayam

AD:MCRC, Madras 1991 –93.

AB: The Spirulina feeding among rural 5000 pre-school children with 1 gm / day has reduced the prevalence of Bitot’s spot and prevented the occurrence of severe form of Vitamin A deficiency. (Corneal xerosis). Giving 1 gm. per day has increased the serum retinol levels. The prevalence of B complex deficiency is reduced in pre-school children with this supplementation.

SO: Monograph Series on Engineering of Photosynthetic Systems, Vol. 36.

Effect of Spirulina supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients (April 1994)

AU: Amudha Ramamurthy

AD:Dept. of Home Science, Avinashilingam institute for women, Coimbatore

AB: The effect of Spirulina on hypercholesterolemic patients was carried out in Coimbatore city. Thirty ischaemic heart disease patients without any complications of the disease and with blood cholesterol levels above 250mg/dl were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 10 each for supplementation of Spirulina. Subjects in groups A and B received 2g and 4g Spirulina per day, respectively for three months. Group C served as control. The study has revealed that Spirulina plays a key role in weight reduction, lowering the blood cholesterol levels and improving the lipid profile of patients.

SO: J. Food Sci. Technol., 1996, Vol. 33, No.2, 124-128

Role of Beta-carotene in the management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (1994)

AU: IPE Varghese, Hari S

AD:Dept. of Oral Pathology, Govt. Dental College, Calicut.

AB: This preliminary study was conducted to find out the utility of nutritional supplements like betacarotene (Spirulina) in the management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. A total of 50 patients from the out patient department of Dental College, Calicut participated in the comparative clinical study. The study group was divided in to two groups as Experimental and Control with 25 patients in each group. All the patients were graded clinically into mild (Grade I) moderate (Grade II) and severe (Grade III) cases.
All the patients belonging to the control group were put on 1. Submucosal injections of placentrex (1ml/week) 2. Multivitamins 3. Colossal Iodine 1 teaspoon tds. and 4. Hot water exercises. The patients belonging to the study group were also put on the same regimen but in addition, β-carotene (Multinal powder / liquid) in the form of a suspension was kept in the oral cavity for 5-10 minutes and swallowed 3 times a day. The study was carried out for a period of 3 months. The results showed that there is a significant percentage reduction in the severity of the disease as revealed by the pre-treatment and post-treatment grades after using β-carotene regimen.

SO: 27th Kerala State Dental Conference 1994.

Evaluation of Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer with Spirulina fusiformis (1995)

AU: Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair P.P, Varghese C, Thara S, Padmavathy B, Sreedevi N and Nair M.K.

AD:Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum.

AB: The blue green microalgae, used in daily diets of natives in Africa and America have been found to be a rich natural source of Proteins, Carotenoids and other micronutrients. Experimental studies in animal models have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Spirulina algae on oral carcinogenesis. Studies among preschool children in India have demonstrated Spirulina fusiformis (SF) to be an effective source of dietary vitamin A. We evaluated the chemopreventive activity of SF (1 g/day for 12 months) in reversing oral leukoplakia in pan tobacco chewers in Kerala, India. Complete regression of lesions was observed in 20 of 44 (45%) evaluable subjects supplemented with SF, as opposed to 3 of 43 (7%) in the placebo arm (p<0.0001). When stratified by type of leukoplakia, the response was more pronounced in homogeneous lesions: complete regression was seen in 16 of 28 (57%) subjects with homogenous leukoplakia, 2 of 8 with erythroplakia, 2 of 4 with verrucous leukoplakia and 0 of 4 with ulcerated and nodular lesions. Within one year of discontinuing supplements, 9 of 20 (45%) complete responders with SF developed recurrent lesions. Supplementation with SF did not result in increased serum concentration of retinol or Beta-carotene, nor was it associated with toxicity. This is the first human study evaluating the chemopreventive potential of SF. More studies in different settings and different populations are needed for further evaluation. When stratified by type of leukoplakia, the response was more pronounced in homogeneous lesions: complete regression was seen in 16 of 28 (57%) subjects with homogenous leukoplakia, 2 of 8 with erythroplakia, 2 of 4 with verrucous leukoplakia and 0 of 4 with ulcerated and nodular lesion. Within one year of discontinuing supplements, 9 of 20 (45%) complete responders with SF developed recurrent lesions. Supplementation with SF did not result in increased serum concentration of retinol or Beta-carotene, nor was it associated with toxicity. This is the first human study evaluating the chemopreventive potential of SF. More studies in different settings and different populations are needed for further evaluation.

SO:Nutrition & Cancer Vol. 24, No. 2 1995 (197-202).

Chemoprotective effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) against cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity in mice

Abstract : IPE Varghese, Hari S

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimutagenic effects of Spirulina (SP) on male and female mice by the dominant lethal test using cyclophosphamide (CP) as a mutagen. Animals of both sex were given SP orally at 0, 200, 400 or 800 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 2 weeks prior to starting the CP treatment. CP was i.p. injected daily for 5 days at 40 mg/kg b.w. For the maledominant lethal test, each male was caged with untreated females per week for 3 weeks. For the female-dominant lethal test the above doses and schedule treatments were used and treated females were caged for one week with untreated males (1–2). On days 13–15 after breeding was |started all the females were evaluated for incidence of pregnancy, total corpora lutea, total implants and pre- and post-implant losses. In the male-dominant lethal test, the CP induced preand post-implant losses in untreated females were inhibited at all SP doses. In the femaledominant lethal test only post-implantation losses were prevented at the same doses. Semen examination of a separate group of mice showed that SP improved its quality. Our results illustrate protective effects of SP in relation to CP-induced genetic damage to germ cells.

Keywords: Antigenotoxicity; Spirulina; Cyclophosphamide; Dominant lethal mutation

Abbreviations: CP, cyclophosphamide; SP, Spirulina

Evaluation of antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities of certain radioprotective plant extracts

Abstract :

The extract of Adhatoda vasica, Amaranthus paniculatus, Brassica compestris, Mentha piperita and Spirulina fusiformis has radioprotective effects in animal model systems. In the present investigation, the extracts of A. vasica, A. paniculatus, B. compestris, M. piperita and S. fusiformis were further evaluated for their antioxidant (GSH&LPO) and radical-scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS+ assays). All these plant extracts showed antioxidant activity, as measured by estimating reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation in liver, and showed radicalscavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS+ assays. The extracts of M. piperita, A. vasica and B. compestris showed very strong radical-scavenging activity in both the assays. However, extracts of A. paniculatus and S. fusiformis showed moderate radical-scavenging activity. The IC50 values of these plant extracts were: M. piperita – 273 µg/ml, A. vasica – 337 µg/ml, B. compestris – 398 µg/ml, A. paniculatus – 548 µg/ml and S. fusiformis – 620 µg/ml, respectively. The differential radioprotective and antioxidant activity of these plant extracts observed may be assigned to different chemical constituents present in the different plant extracts. The result of the present investigation indicates that the antioxidant mechanism of radioprotection and freeradical scavenging appear to be likely mechanisms of radiation protection by these plant extracts.

Keywords: Radical scavenging activity; Radioprotection; GSH; LPO; DPPH and ABTS+

Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of mexican population: a preliminary report

Abstract :

The extract of Adhatoda vasica, Amaranthus paniculatus, Brassica compestris, Mentha piperita and Spirulina fusiformis has radioprotective effects in animal model systems. In the present investigation, the extracts of A. vasica, A. paniculatus, B. compestris, M. piperita and S. fusiformis were further evaluated for their antioxidant (GSH&LPO) and radical-scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS+ assays). All these plant extracts showed antioxidant activity, as measured by estimating reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation in liver, and showed radicalscavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS+ assays. The extracts of M. piperita, A. vasica and B. compestris showed very strong radical-scavenging activity in both the assays. However, extracts of A. paniculatus and S. fusiformis showed moderate radical-scavenging activity. The IC50 values of these plant extracts were: M. piperita – 273 µg/ml, A. vasica – 337 µg/ml, B. compestris – 398 µg/ml, A. paniculatus – 548 µg/ml and S. fusiformis – 620 µg/ml, respectively. The differential radioprotective and antioxidant activity of these plant extracts observed may be assigned to different chemical constituents present in the different plant extracts. The result of the present investigation indicates that the antioxidant mechanism of radioprotection and freeradical scavenging appear to be likely mechanisms of radiation protection by these plant extracts.

Keywords: Radical scavenging activity; Radioprotection; GSH; LPO; DPPH and ABTS+

Spirulina fusiformis provides protection against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

Abstract:

Oxidative stress induced by mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) in mice substantially increases the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver and increase in serum transaminases activity. Supplementation of Spirulina (800 mg/kg body weight orally, in olive oil, along with mercuric chloride) for 40 days resulted in decreased LPO level, serum glutamate oxaloacetate and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase activity along with increase in liver GSH level. The activities of antioxidants enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by Spirulina supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated mice. The results clearly demonstrate that Spirulina treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases

Keywords: Antigenotoxicity; Spirulina; Cyclophosphamide; Dominant lethal mutation

Spirulina fusiformis provides protection against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

Abstract:

Oxidative stress induced by mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) in mice substantially increases the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver and increase in serum transaminases activity. Supplementation of Spirulina (800 mg/kg body weight orally, in olive oil, along with mercuric chloride) for 40 days resulted in decreased LPO level, serum glutamate oxaloacetate and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase activity along with increase in liver GSH level. The activities of antioxidants enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by Spirulina supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated mice. The results clearly demonstrate that Spirulina treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases

Keywords: Antigenotoxicity; Spirulina; Cyclophosphamide; Dominant lethal mutation